II. Grammar and Vocabulary Section A
Directions: After reading the passage below, fill in the blanks to make the passage coherent and grammatically correct. For the blanks with a given word, fill in each blank with the proper form of the given word; for the other blanks, use one word that best fits each blank.
On a flight from Dallas, Texas, to Cincinnati, Ohio, in 2008, event planner Paige Chenault daydreamed about the detailed birthday parties she’d throw for her daughter. Then, (21)_______ (browse) through a magazine, she saw a photo of a poverty-stricken Haitian boy. “I thought, this kid has nothing,” Paige says.
The image stayed with (22)_______, and she resolved to do something to help. “I decided I (23)_______ use my talents to throw birthday parties for homeless kids,” Paige says.
Finally, in January 2012, Paige launched the Birthday Party Project, a nonprofit organization, and called on friends and family to help decorate Dallas’s 75-occupant Family Gateway Shelter with balloons and banners, celebrating the birthdays of 11 boys and girls, (24)_______ 60 more homeless kids in attendance. “That first party was (25)_______ than I could have ever imagined,” says Paige.
Now Paige and her staff of three (26)_______(pay) employees work with regional volunteers, aka “birthday enthusiasts”, to plan monthly themed parties at 15 shelters across the country, some of (27)_______ house abused or abandoned kids. Each child celebrating a birthday that month gets a $30 gift, a decorative place mat, and an individual cake or cupcake.
One of Paige’s favorite parts of each party is (28)_______ the kids make a wish and blow out the candles. “Rarely (29)_______ they get a chance to dream big,” says Paige.
Her daughter, Lizzie, now seven, often helps out at the parties. Paige says, “The one thing I’ve always wanted for my kid (30)_______(be) generous.”
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Directions: Complete the following passage by using the words in the box. Each word can only be used once. Note that there is one word more than you need.
A. sorted B. extremely C. disposed D. archaeology E. include F. critical G. coding H. defined I. randomly J. recycle K. response
There are many ways of obtaining an understanding of people’s behavior. One of these is to study the objects discarded by a community, objects used in daily lives. The study of the garbage of a society is the basis for the science of ___31___ in which the lives and behavior of past societies are minutely examined. Some recent studies have indicated the degree to which rubbish is socially ___32___.
For several years the University of Arizona, USA, has been running a Garbage Project, in which garbage is collected, ___33___ out and noted. It began in 1973 with an arrangement whereby the City of Tucson collected for analysis garbage from ___34___ selected households in designated census (人口普查) collection districts. Since then the researchers have studied other cities both in the USA and Mexico, improving their techniques and procedures in ___35___ to the challenges of understanding the often unexpected results they have obtained. Garbage is classified according to a(n)___36___ detailed schedule, a range of data for each item is recorded on a standardized ___37___ form, and the researchers analyze their findings with information from census and other social surveys.
The Project leaders then decided to look not only at what was thrown away, but what happened to it after that. In many counties waste is ___38___ of in landfills, where the rubbish is compacted and buried in the ground. So in 1987, the Project expanded its activities to ___39___ the excavation (挖掘) of landaus across the United States
one had ever attempted such excavations before.
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The Garbage Project's work shows how many misconceptions exist about garbage. The researchers are therefore ___40___ of attempts to promote one type of waste management,
over others, such as incineration or landfilling. Each has its
advantages and disadvantages, and what may be appropriate for one locality may not be appropriate for another.
III. Reading comprehension. Section A
Directions: For each of them there are four choices marked A, B, C and D. Choose the one that fits best according to the information given in the passage you have just read.
Business has traditionally been and to a certain extent still is a ‘a boy’s game’. Less than six per cent of executive management positions in American and European companies are held by women, and of the Fortune 500 only four have female CEO! __41__ in British one in three new business are started up by women, and since 1980 the number of self-employed women has increased twice as fast as the number of such men.
Is it just a case of women whose career progress has been __42__ by their male colleague—the so-called ;glass ceiling syndrome’—being forced to set their own business? Or do women share specific management qualities which somehow __43__ them better in self-employment? As many as forty per cent of start-ups __44__ within their first two years, but the failure rate of those run by women is substantially lower than that. It’s hardly surprising, therefore, that though male bosses tend to be unwilling to promote women, male bank managers seem only too __45__ to finance their business.
Anita Roddick, founder of the Body Shop empire, is the perfect __46__ of the female entrepreneur, with her company growing from zero to 470 million in its first fifteen years. Perhaps the secret of her success was a caution, rather than push ahead with
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the purchasing of new shops. Roddick got herself into franchising (加盟) —the cheapest way to __47__ a business while keeping overheads (費用) down. Caution, forward planning and tight budgeting seem to be more female __48__ than male. They are also the preprint for success when launching a new company. The recent Internet boom allowed women like Martha Lane Fox to set up their massively successful web travel agency lastminute. com. In __49__ nobody cares what sex you are.
When women join a(n) __50__ company, it’s a different story. Less cruelly individualistic in their approach to business, women are more __51__ the feelings of the group or team in which they work. They are generally more cooperative than competitive, less assertive (獨斷的) , less prepared to lead from the front. Though they usually manage their time better than men and may even work harder, they are much less likely than their male counterparts to take risks. And, __52__, it is risk-taking that makes corporate high fliers. As one male director put it: “I’m not paid to make the right decision. I’m just paid to make decisions.”
It’s an overgeneralization, of course, but it remains true that men will more readily take the __53__ than women. The female style of management leans towards
consensus(一致) and conciliation (安撫) . Women seem to be better communicators than
men—both more articulate and better listeners. And perhaps it is women’s capacity to listen that makes them particularly effective in __54__ areas of business. In any mixed group of business people the ones doing most of the talking will almost certainly be the men. But perhaps only the women will really be listening.
It was predominantly men who led the hierarchical (權力階層的) corporations pf the nineties. But it may be women who will __55__ the most in the more democratic, people-centered years to come.
41. A. Therefore 42. A. increased 43. A. enjoy
C. Furthermore C. blocked
D. Otherwise D. influenced
D. weigh D. endure
B. stimulated B. serve B. soar
44. A. collapse 45. A. reluctant
C. suffer C. reserved
B. careful D. happy
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46. A. example situation 47. A. launch
B. individual C. occasion D.
B. expand B. records
C. release D. confirm
48. A. prospects flavours 49. A. business 50. A. financial
B. cyberspace B. existing
C. competition C. initial
D. travel D. prosperous D. sensitive
51. A. interested in to
52. A. in addition contrast
53. A. consequence
B. adapted to C. familiar with
B. for instance C. above all D. by
B. initiative C. responsibility
54. A. profit-favoured B. business-centred C. strstegy-employed people-oriented 55. A. shoot
Directions: Read the following passages. Each passage is followed by several questions or unfinished statement. For each of them there are four choices marked A, B, C and D. Choose the one that fits best according to the information given in the passage you have just read.
One August afternoon, Richard Allen dropped off his last passenger, Mrs. Carey. Lifting two grocery bags, he followed her across the yard and stood on the step of her house. Glancing up, he saw a large wasp (黃蜂) nest under the roof. Allen had heard that wasps can become more likely to sting in summer. He mentioned this to Mrs. Carey, who had opened the door.
“Oh, they don’t bother me,”she said lightly. “I go in and out all the time.” Anxiously, Allen looked at the nest again—to see the wasps flying straight at him. “Hurry!”he shouted to Mrs. Carey. “Get in!”
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She stepped quickly inside. Allen ran for his mini-bus. Too late; they were upon him. Just as he jumped aboard, half a dozen red spots showed on his arm, and he felt more on his back and shoulders.
As he was driving down the road, Allen felt as if something was burning at the back of his neck, and the “fire” was spreading forward toward his face. An immediate anxiety took hold of him. Allen knew that stings could cause some persons to die. But he had been stung the previous summer and the after-effects soon passed. However, what he didn’t know was that the first sting had turned his body into a time bomb waiting for the next to set off an explosion.
Miles from the nearest medical assistance, Allen began to feel his tongue thick and heavy and his heartbeat louder. Most frightening, he felt his breathing more and more difficult. He reached for the radio mike (話筒), trying to call the mini-bus center, but his words were hardly understandable. Signals were also poor that far out. He knew a rescue team was on 24-hour duty at the Amherst Fire Department’s north station. So his best chance was to make a run for it.
Rushing down the mountain, Allen tried not to panic, focusing his mind on each sharp turn. He was almost through the last of them when he felt sure he was going into shock (休克). Just then he reached for the radio mike again.
“Call fire station,” he shouted, concentrating to form the words. “Emergency. Bee sting. Emergency. There in ten minutes.”
“Five-ten.”the center replied.
Hold on, Allen thought. Keep your eyes open. Breathe. Keep awake.
At last he reached the station. Two firemen ran out. Allen felt their hands grasp him before he hit the ground. You made it, he thought.
56. It is mentioned in the passage that wasps are more likely to attack when_____. A. there are huge noises
B. strangers are approaching
D. the hottest season comes
C. the air is filled with food smell around
57. Allen didn't know that if stung by wasps again, he would______.
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